Forth SPI on Arduino

One byte (0xa6) transmitted from master out SPI pin using Forth

Arduino-FVM comes with only a few Arduino-function words, basically just a few for working with the digital pins. So the test for Forth was going to be: how difficult is it to access other microchip functionality using memory reads and writes? An encouraging first step was to implement SPI TX, using the information in the 328 datasheet.

C Code Example from 328 datasheet of SPI Master TX

First I needed some constants for the register addresses and bit numbers:

0x24 constant DDR_SPI
0x3 constant DD_MOSI
0x5 constant DD_SCK
0x2 constant DD_SS
0x4c constant SPCR
0x6 constant SPE
0x4 constant MSTR
0x0 constant SPR0
0x4e constant SPDR
0x4d constant SPSR
0x7 constant SPIF

Next I needed to set up the data direction bits for the MOSI, SCK, and SS pins, as well as set some bits in the SPCR register to control mode and communication frequency:

: setup-master-spi ( -- )
1 DD_MOSI lshift
1 DD_SCK lshift
1 DD_SS lshift
or or
DDR_SPI c!
1 SPE lshift
1 MSTR lshift
1 SPR0 lshift
or or
SPCR c!
;

And here is a function for transmitting a single byte, after dropping the byte on the stack:

: tx-master ( ch -- )
SPDR c!
begin
SPSR c@ 1 SPIF lshift and
until
;

And here is a demo procedure for sending byte 0xA6 repeatedly:

: spi-demo
setup-master-spi
begin
0xa6
tx-master
again
;

Now we can see that byte on the oscilloscope, from MOSI pin 11:

SPI signal for byte 0xA6

Byte 0xA6 equals 10100110, which you can understand from the signal image if you know that (1) signal low represents “1” and high represents “0”; (2) the X-scale is 2 microseconds, with one bit per microsecond; and (3) the first bit is the one microsecond of low signal just to the left of the Y axis.

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